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哈尼族传统节日清单

浏览 114次 来源:【jake推荐】 作者:-=Jake=-    时间:2021-03-29 02:16:01
[摘要] 在我国有58个少数民族,每个民族都有自己的传统节日和节日习俗。祭母节是哈尼族传统祭祀性节日。祭竜节是哈尼族主要的祭祀节日,一年有两次。随着时代的发展,这一活动已成为哈尼族最盛大的节日。云南哈尼族的传统农事节日。祭祀活动,是哈尼族“扎勒特”的重要的内容之一。云南红河南岸哀牢山一带的哈尼族人民的传统节日。

我国有58个少数民族,每个民族都有自己的传统节日和节日习俗。哈尼族是当今中国的少数民族之一。它是中国西南边境的一个较老的种族。他们自称为哈尼族,加多族,亚尼族,比约族,布杜族,白虹族等。哈尼族的发展历史悠久。自然,有很多节日。 “十月”,“ Ematu”和“ Rangzha”在香港很流行,通常被称为哈尼的三个主要节日。

哈尼族传统节日

十月

在十月份,哈尼族在哈尼族中被称为“ Zalet”或“ Missoza”。时间从夏季日历的10月的第一个龙日到猴子的一天结束。它持续五六天。它是一年中哈尼族最长,最丰富的节日,与汉族的春节相似。在10月的第一天,所有的哈尼小屋都被打扫了。男女老少都穿着崭新的民族服装。女孩的头和新衣服上都覆盖着闪闪发光的银气泡,银链和银牌。他们沿着这条路走来,叮叮当当,既美丽又宜人。在元旦第一天的黎明时分,全家的妇女忙着捣粉扑面食和做饺子面。寨子上空的天空传来阵阵喘气的声音。这些人正忙着杀死猪和牛,烹制各种美味的食物。

在端午节的早晨,有些人只吃饺子和b子,不吃早餐。有些人宰杀了一只大红公鸡,与整个家庭一起吃饭,这意味着家庭团聚。中午,人们在寨子广场上高高的秋千,并举行秋千活动。好斗的年轻人聚集在一起举行旋转陀螺比赛和摔跤比赛。傍晚,篝火在篝火上点燃,人们围坐在篝火旁,老人唱着民歌“ Habakar”和“ Gengu Tune”,男孩们敲锣鼓,女孩们欢快地跳舞。 “扭曲。” “舞蹈”,各个年龄段的男女通宵达旦地唱歌跳舞。按照传统规定,在元旦晚饭前的每个早晚,每个家庭都会用一个小簸carry将一块谷酒和三颗饺子种到村庄的入口,倒出来,这意味着献出自己的生命。给祖先。然后,他向同一个家族中世代最多的家庭送了一些食物,以表明他没有忘记自己血统的祖先。

哈尼族传统节日

在元旦期间,所有已婚女孩都必须返回其出生的家庭庆祝新年。外ne应该向叔叔索要新的一年的钱,家人的亲戚应该给他们好酒和肉,再送些爸爸和煮好的鸭蛋。哈尼族人一直热情好客,在新年期间,他们应邀请附近的其他种族作为客人来他们的家。即使路过的陌生人也应受到热烈的对待。吃完饭后,我们将送一些巴巴和培根,供客人带走。在某些地方哈尼族传统节日,新年假期期间,会举行“子午渡”活动,即一场欢乐快乐的鸡尾酒会。每个家庭都将用小簸pan煮熟的各种美味带到街道的中央,并按顺序放在长垫子上。整个村庄一起吃饭。街头宴会长数百米,场面极为壮观。

据说很久以前,在夏季日历的十月,樱花盛开时,一个大怪物出现在山上。它毁了庄稼,吞噬了人类和动物,使哈尼族人不安。一天,它踩在一个家庭的篱笆上,闯入房子偷东西。突然,它看到樱花在墙上喷出的火在火焰中燃烧,发出猩红色的光,它是如此害怕从庭院中逃脱。它闯入另一所房子,赶到养牛场去抓牛羊吃。主人急于要明智,抓住了一个铜盆,把它扔了过去。 “叮叮叮”的声音吓走了恶魔。到了晚上,漆黑的夜晚再次进入了房屋。当主人听到脚步声时,他点燃了火炬。明亮的火炬再次吓坏了恶魔。自此以后,恶魔一天三度受到惊吓,不敢再呆了,从此消失在哈尼山。恶魔被吓走的那一天被称为“端午节”。从那时起,哈尼族人民就将夏历的10月的第一个龙日定为一年的第一天。从今天起,元旦已经过了元旦。

哈尼族传统节日

母亲节

母亲节是哈尼族传统的祭祀节。时间通常在农历第二个月的第一天。传说很久以前,有一个年轻的寡妇正在努力抚养她的儿子并与他结婚并成为一个家庭。但是,善良的母亲并没有得到回报。儿子不仅不尊重母亲,而且每天都殴打和骂母亲。他对母亲的生活漠不关心。母亲受不了酷刑,所以自杀了。儿子的孝道造成了严重的后果。儿子没有通过减少母亲而致富。相反,他一天天变得贫穷,最后不得不乞求生计。这时,他的儿子突然意识到自己的错误,并决定改变自己的过去。

由于母亲在牛年那天自杀而自杀,儿子在那天成为了母亲的牺牲。为了怀念母亲的好意,儿子在寨子附近选择了一棵大树作为母亲的象征。每年都会准时牺牲。哈尼族传统的“母亲牺牲节”已经形成了很长一段时间。在这一天,人们穿上鲜艳的服装并献出牺牲,并把村庄作为一个整体,聚集在村庄旁边的一棵大树前。 ,拉香蕉叶,放在地上,布置每个家庭带来的酒,肉,鸡肉,甘蔗,糖果等产品,并吹响大鼓和锣声。在长者的领导下,男女老少连续三下跪在那棵大树前,唱着念母的歌。

这首歌唱着:“有一棵母树站在我的面前,我看见那棵树,泪水成串。我可以唱几百首歌,也不能唱母亲的善良。是无尽的泉水,没有母亲的爱意。英雄是由母亲抚养的。乞a也有母亲。”唱歌后,人们根据年龄和年龄坐在一起吃饭和吃饭。晚餐时,老年人谈论过去和现在,并教导年轻人服从老年人,爱年轻人。每个人都讨论并判断小屋中每个家庭对父母的待遇如何。好的赞美,不好的评价,要等到太阳下山之后才能结束。 

哈尼族传统节日

节日荣节

牺牲节是哈尼族人民的主要祭祀节,每年举行两次。月亮的第一个月是对村庄之神的牺牲,为灾难和祝福以及人与动物的繁荣祈祷。 Marchlong是一项农业牺牲,祈求好天气和丰收。辽沉的象征通常是一万年前的树,称为辽树。过去,每个村庄都形成了,无论是十个家庭,八个家庭还是一个家庭,都有必要在村庄的选定位置种一棵树。这棵树是长树。两种仪式活动都将在这棵树下举行。据说那棵长树可以保护寨子。阴历正月初一的龙日是阴历正月日长,要敬拜村民的神(村民的神相当于汉族的土地神)的日子。

公共牺牲的牺牲是一头猪。猪被杀死后,将其跪地放在树平台上。来自每个家庭的一个人参加公共牺牲,每个人赠送一碗三色糯米(红色,黄色和白色,表示幸福,吉祥和纯正)和少量香炉供祭司食用。在平台上,然后低下头。崇拜。朝拜结束后,可以喝酒,吃饭,宴会上每个人都可以向众神祈祷。农历三月的第一天是龙在三月拜神的日子。在这一天的午餐后,来自每个家庭的一个人带来了一只鸡,一小撮香,一小撮茶,一壶酒和一碗红,黄,白糯米,以参加公众牺牲。

在祭祀开始时,每个人都喝了一口胡椒叶水来清洁自己的嘴,然后将祭祀交给首席祭司,交给龙泰。献祭的人都会ko头。献祭结束后,请喝酒并唱歌。当天空中出现星星时​​,举行了欢迎众神进入村庄的仪式。村民们点燃了火把,并把鼓敲向村子的入口打招呼,而牧师排起了长队。牧师唱了欢迎的歌:“天空中的星光闪闪,时光已到。村庄的鼓声迎接众神。这是献祭的好时机,请离开。听大家唱歌跳舞,和祝福。人们。”领袖向后走出了漫长的世界,每走十步,领队唱起“萨勒-”,群众唱起“萨勒-”(意思是吉祥的),然后进入吉隆广场。广场上摆了一张宴会桌,椅子放在神明的座位上。主人和同伙坐在民族餐桌旁,唱着祭祀的话,并祈求神灵祝福这个村庄安全,幸福和吉祥。人们在围场中跳舞了传统的歌舞《塞尼尼》。第二天,耶和华与押运者将点燃香火,并举起蜡烛,将荣神送上王位,三月节将结束。

哈尼族传统节日

“利马勋爵”音乐节

“ Lima Lord”是哈尼语的音译,意为春天的盛况。这是哈尼族的传统节日。它每年三月在山茶花盛开时举行。居住在红河两岸的哈尼族人崇拜杜鹃,并称其为“ Hebo Ama”(杜鹃之母)。在山茶花盛开的春天的每个三月,无论男女老幼,只要他们第一次听到杜鹃的歌声,每个人都会以“我听到了”的答案回应,表达他们的欢呼声。春天。据说,这样的回答可以使勤劳善良的哈尼农舍收获丰盛的谷物并繁荣六畜,并终年实现和平与繁荣。

根据传说,杜鹃是由阿波莫米神(Apomomi)派出的,它从遥远的地平线上的一个岩石洞穴中飞出,将春天的消息传遍了世界。当它飞过名为“ Sai Awani Beng Beng Ma”的海时,它无法飞行,并且似乎即将掉入海中。突然,一条龙的尾巴从海中升起,然后,龙的尾巴变成了一棵大树,上面长着茂密的树枝,使杜鹃靠在上面。杜鹃终于渡过了所有的艰辛,向世界传达了春天的信息。按照前人遵循的规则,在大多数人听到布谷鸟的叫声之后,他们碰巧遇见了一天的绵羊,并准备了美味的菜肴。将糯米和一棵大树的花汁一起浸泡,然后蒸成金黄的香。糯米,煮熟的红鸭蛋,是杜鹃的忠实奉献。

这一天,村庄里的小伙子和女孩子们充满了春风,穿着节日服装,聚集在温和的草坪上,庆祝一年一度的“里玛勋爵”节(春季活动),以便选择物品和谈恋爱中的爱。节后,每个家庭都选择一个美好的一天。当鸟儿不在巢中,四山静寂时,父母就在自己的田地里静静地种了三簇苗,这就是“打开苗门”。据说“打开苗门”时听不到鸟的声音,今年的农作物免于灾害,收成很好。

哈尼族传统节日

“蚱Cat捕捉节”

在哈尼称为“ Abao Nian”的蚱Cat捕捉节是在“六月”之后的每年公鸡或猴年的第一天(每年的农历6月24日)举行。哈尼族人居住在山区,种植水稻达一个季节。在“六月的一年”之后,大米开始去头了。为了确保水稻丰收,哈尼族人采取了“蚱Cat捕捉节”的方法来驱赶和避免害虫。在“蚱Cat捕捉节”的那天,所有村庄的所有男女老少都到田里去抓蚱hopper。每个家庭抓到一张竹简(约两斤)后,他们将蚱hopper一个一个地分成五个部分:第一堆。 ,一堆腿,一堆身体,一堆翅膀;反过来,它们被切成薄片的竹片夹在中间,并插入山脊和排水沟旁边,以威吓尚未捕获的蚱grass和其他昆虫。半小时后,这些蚱hopper将被收集到竹筒中。将其作为蔬菜带回家或与巴巴混合。据说grass肉很甜。离开田野时,人们会大喊:“哦,蚱hopper,我三天不会抓到你,三个月不吃米饭!” 

“ Pleiadians”

“ Angmatu”是哈尼族人的祭祀活动,每年春季(通常在1月中旬)耕作,以祈求来年的气候平稳。谷物众多,人畜共患。随着时代的发展,这一活动已成为哈尼族人民最盛大的节日。 “ Angmatu”通常举行3至5天。活动期间,热情的哈尼族人可以唱歌,跳舞,跳舞和唱歌,讲述各个年龄段和不同性别的美好生活。沿街有300多个宴会。它长数百米,所以又称龙宴。

在宴会上。村里的老人坐在巨龙的头上,女人坐在巨龙的尾巴上,其余的坐在中间。整个村庄都喝了自酿的米酒,品尝了主妇准备的食物。它的爱与风景不仅是烹饪技术的比赛,更是充满了生活的温暖,也彰显了哈尼族的团结。如果您此时来到这里,热情好客的哈尼族人将热情邀请您坐下,与他们分享美好的生活。

哈尼族传统节日

“苗阿丽娜”节

种植结束后,芦春县的哈尼族将庆祝“苗阿丽娜”节。 “爱”的中文意思是“秋季播种后的休息日”,时间一般在五月初。节日那天,整个村庄一起宰杀了猪和羊,每个家庭都有自己的一份。在“苗阿丽娜”节之后,您可以吹牛。有人说吹牛是为了养牛。这里还有一个民间故事:过去,在“妙爱娜”节日期间,一个牧羊男孩想把他家中的两只牛放到山上,但是工作的牛永远不会上山,总是碰到字段。

牧羊人无能为力,于是他吹了牛角,对那头农场牛说:“可爱的老母牛,几天前,你很努力。现在已经种完了种子,请休息。”农场的牛了解并传播欢上山了。根据当地人的规定,在假日早餐之前,将一碗茶和一碗酒倒在切好的草上,然后用草包一碗肉和一碗米饭来喂牛。此外,种苗时使用的耙子和子应清洗干净并放在一定的地方。节日的夜晚,大火点燃了,村里的人们都到草坪上跳舞唱歌直到深夜。

六月节

在哈尼语中,它被称为“苦味残渣节”,通常在农历第六个月的第24天左右举行,历时三至六天。在节日期间,年轻人聚集在一起摆动,摔跤,唱歌和跳舞,并从中获得乐趣。在某些地方,今晚在家中点燃松散的火把,以驱走一切物品。每当音乐节到来时,哈尼族人民就必须准备三种荔枝:沟里的水芹菜,山脊上的鱼腥蔬菜和山上的菜花椰菜。此外,还有两种著名的冷菜伴鱼和earth与青苔混合的菜肴。在节日期间,每个家庭都会切香蕉叶,然后将它们铺在桌上,上面堆满各种菜肴。

除妇女外,全家与客人坐在一起,喝水和葡萄酒,吃美味的食物,唱歌哈巴舞。不同的节日,哈巴有着不同的内容:新年,只唱新年的起源;盖房子,只唱如何盖房子,谁是先盖房子的老人?结婚时,哈巴歌手警告新郎,新娘应该如何相爱,以及如何生子。还必须教人们如何计算年和月,如何划分四个季节以及如何安排农场工作等。

哈尼族传统节日

成型秋季节

墨丘节是哈尼族的传统节日:每年在农历五月的猪节或狗节(也称为“五月节”)举行。关于魔丘节的起源,哈尼族人有一个美丽的故事。很久以前,哈尼村有两个兄弟姐妹。哥哥叫哈朗,妹妹叫阿昂。阿郎擅长武术,阿昂又聪明又漂亮,他们俩都喜欢帮助村民做事。那时,天空中的太阳和月亮显得不稳定,有时出现几天凤凰彩票代理 ,有时几天没有出现,因此农作物无法正常生长。阿郎和阿昂的兄弟姐妹商定分别上天说服日月有规律地出现。

这一天,兄弟姐妹将栗木切碎,制成了磨球。他们骑着魔丘,魔丘丘迅速旋转,将亚兰和昂昂送入天空,找到了日月。兄弟姐妹们用尽了所有的舌头,终于说服了太阳和月亮同意太阳白天会出来,而月亮会在晚上出来。从那时起,太阳和月亮定期出现,农作物长得很好,每年的收成都很高。但是,两个兄弟姐妹再也没有回来。为了纪念他们,每年在农历五旬节的猪日或狗日,哈尼村都会开展秋转秋色的活动。同时,每个家庭还杀害鸡鸭,泉水糯米和耙米,拜天地,磨秋天。发明家-亚兰和阿昂。从那时起,一个节日就形成了。

老年人节

每年的每年农历正月十五日,生活在新平县喀多山区的哈尼族人民都在庆祝悠久的民族传统节日-老年人节。早晨,这个年轻人上山去挖松树,女人们忙着准备表演的食物。太阳向西,盛子(一个专门供节日活动的地方)种满了绿色的松树,整个村庄的老人都聚集在绿色的松树下。当主持人宣布节日庆典开始时,锣鼓响起。年轻男子和妇女拿着蒸米酒和茶,而中年男子和妇女拿着糯米,鸡蛋和其他芳香的食物,给坐在青松下的老人。然后,年轻人弹奏了中共中央委员的小三弦,女孩子们唱起了他们开始听的歌,老人们还在欢呼声中跳了一场秧歌(老人的圆舞)。最后,主持人要求长者轮流讲述过去一年中孩子的成长情况。听完每个老人的叙述后,人们称赞那些尊重和热爱老年人的人,并批评那些对老人不敬和不孝的年轻人。

哈尼族传统节日

“丰收”

丰收节是元江县那湖地区哈尼族的三个主要节日之一。尽管它不如“ Zalet”和“ Kuzaza”那么宏大,但它尤其重要。当地的哈尼族人民相信,但是这个节日,新的一年还没有真正到来,而10月的开始只是一个序幕。 “收集颜色好”的意思是“黄米”,当地汉族称其为“黄米节”或“二月”。在这个节日上,当地的哈尼族人民牺牲了布谷鸟和“彭苦”鸟(Cangmomi神的使者)。因此,节日是在听到杜鹃和“笔苦”鸟的第一个叫声之后举行的。 ,假期结束了。

“ Amatu”

在锦屏苗族,瑶族和Dai族自治县的哈尼族阴历的第二个月属于端午节的“ Amatu”,也被称为二月年。该节日包括向山区,祖先和社区森林提供的祭品。在节日的第一天,杀死鸡以杀死外国鬼魂,并用竹棍做护身符,以防止外国鬼魂进入。清晨,村里的所有男女老少都会自动去井里挖井,割草,扫地。然后,Moba或有名望的长者将杀死白公鸡,同时向水里献祭,同时向山上献祭,因为他们相信水来自山,山依附于他们。林养血。因此,这里的人们通常在树下筑井。中午时分,斋寨宝塔被崇拜。斋心塔建在蔡寨中心,由粘土制成。这是最早建村的地方。

节后,寨新塔是“头”,每个家庭都聚拢一张宴会桌,然后下山。这被称为街头宴会,所有男人都必须参加,以表明整个村庄正在共同努力。仪式结束后牺牲到树林里。森林是村庄旁的茂密森林。森林中禁止放牧任何草木或树木,禁止妇女进入。祭祖莫巴,族长和长者在树林中献祭时,带领两个年轻男子打扮成男人和女人,敲锣,提着三个预先准备好的鹅卵石,为树献血。三个鹅卵石,其中一个染有村庄原始的原始红色,放在树的根部左侧,称为龙(山与龙相同,山上有一条龙,水是清澈的森林)另一个是用猪血染成的。它位于树前的树中间,是一片纪念森林,其中包括祖先。第三块石头上沾有狗血,放在树的根部右侧,以示对鬼魂的牺牲。

两个打扮成男人和女人的年轻人象征着童贞,分别站在树的两旁,而三位长老们则吟诵佛经,祈求繁荣,五谷丰盛,消除灾难,同时还向他们提供了三块石头。拜神。牺牲。音乐节将持续七天。从端午节前三天开始,将停止所有生产和市场活动。如果有人意外进入该村庄,将不允许他们在7天内离开该村庄。大陆红河南岸的哈尼族人民还庆祝农历新年,端午节和中秋节。新年第一个月后的三到五天,有条件的人会杀猪牺牲自己的祖先,在新年的第一天吃汤圆,并在亲戚和朋友之间举行宴会。端午节和中秋节与汉族习俗大致相同。

女孩节

云南省元阳县碧波山的哈尼族人们每年在农历第二个月的第四天庆祝特殊的女孩节。在这一天,鸡还没有哭过,男人们必须首先拿起一桶水。天马亮时,砍去一捆柴火,然后放火烧开水,然后将洗面奶缓慢地冲到慢腾中醒来。女性。然后,男人们做饭,洗菜凤凰彩票app ,剁猪食物,洗碗碟和筷子,并带孩子,而女人们则悠闲地坐着,做一些针线活,或指示男人去做。未婚的女孩甚至不做针线活。午餐后,这些人匆匆赶往该村的公共娱乐场所。

根据习俗,先到的勤劳的人,再到的懒惰的人。小伙子从情人那里借来了新的妇女的衣服和裤子,打扮成女孩,并随着弦乐的欢乐而跳舞。他们直到太阳西下才回家做饭,并继续为妇女服务,直到深夜。根据传说,“女孩节”起源于一个古老的传说。很久以前,在四面环山,泉水和树木环绕的碧波村,有一个女孩,天生比一个叫尤玛的金色竹子还漂亮。尤马爱上了这位英俊的年轻猎人。但是,那时,哈尼女孩的婚姻是由酋长和她的父母决定的。尤马(Yuma)的父母将她嫁给了吐司的独眼女。

尤玛为此感到非常痛苦,她决心通过死亡表达对爱的追求。 2月的第四天,尤马一个人去徐沟山砍柴,遇到了三个来自同一村庄和邻近村庄的女孩。尤玛告诉他们她的不幸,这使三个女孩哭了。事实证明,他们在婚姻中也很不幸。四个女孩忘了砍柴或回家。他们在山顶上互相抱怨。他们抱怨的越多,抱怨的就越悲伤,他们抱怨的就越悲伤,他们都跳下悬崖自杀。悲剧发生后,哈尼族人民认为他们不能再干涉男孩和女孩的婚姻,特别是对于女孩,他们应该有权选择自己喜欢的人。为了警告子孙后代,哈尼族人民把每年的2月4日定为“女孩日”,以示对妇女的尊重和婚姻自由。现在,在该地区的哈尼族青年男女自由相爱之后,他们选择了自己的约会对象。他们没有新娘或宴会,他们用杯香茶来招待来祝贺他们的客人。

哈尼族传统节日

新米节

云南哈尼族传统农业节。西双版纳和澜沧在哈尼被称为“吃新米”。红河州被称为“车市闸”,翻译为“新密节”;在其他地方,它被称为“ Kanuchuye”和“ Yopmoche”。每年的阴历七、的八月,是在另一天,当田里的稻田以杨梅的颜色出现时。在某些地方,选择Longri是因为在哈尼语中“龙”的意思是“增加”和“增加”。哈尼族人民希望在吃完新米饭和喝新米酒的仪式后,希望获得丰收的大米,并多吃些。

节日的早晨,每个户主来到稻田里,选择了长耳朵的稻米,揉了几口米饭,用树叶包好,挂在田里哈尼族传统节日,以示稻米田里有更多的水稻。他们还捡起一些谷物,带回家,在春季生产新米,制造新米银河国际 ,建立新米酒,并招待村长或亲戚。他们还使用一部分新的米花爆米花。晚餐前,每个家庭必须先用新的稻米,稻米花等牺牲其祖先,然后再用稻米花喂它们的狗。因为,根据传说,很久以前,世界上的所有农作物都在大洪水中被冲走了。水退去后,一只小鸟发现了一个稻穗,正要啄它。一条狗吓坏了那只小鸟,捡起了种子。从那时起,人们重新种了米。

因此,哈尼族人每次食用新谷物时,必须首先将其交给狗。还有一个当地传说,女神的女儿奥玛(Oma)背着父亲,秘密地将稻米种子送给全世界银河国际 ,并教导哈尼族人如何耕种。结果,父亲很生气,把她变成了一只狗,把她送去了世界。哈尼族人民不会忘记她的功绩,因此他们每年都在牺牲自己。牺牲后,家人和客人开始享用丰盛的米饭和新米酒。据说吃得越多越好。大米在秋收时就饱了,永远也不会吃完。在某些地方,村子里的龙巴头一家选择吉祥的日子吃新米,并邀请村里的所有男性长者品尝新食物,然后每户人家又一次品尝新米。新稻节过后不久,秋天的收获就开始了。

“扎闸”音乐节

The "Zhazha" in the fifth month of the summer calendar is one of the important traditional festivals of the Hani people in the Ailao Mountain area of ​​southern Yunnan. It lasts three to five days and its celebrations are extremely grand. At that time, the busy spring farming production has ended, and the midsummer farming is slack, and it also means social entertainment and wishing "good harvests, good health for people and animals". Generally, the first day of the festival is the first Shen Monkey Day in the fifth month of the summer calendar. In some areas, the festival is celebrated during the "Dragon Boat Festival" or the "Torch Festival".

哈尼族传统节日

"Zalert"

Zalet is the biggest festival of the Hani people. Because it takes place in the tenth month of the lunar calendar, it is also called "Yilaheshi". According to the ancient calendar, the Hani people alternate between the new and the old year in the tenth month of the lunar calendar, taking the end of the ninth month of the lunar calendar as the end of the year and October as the beginning of the year. There is no specific fixed time limit between the new and the old years. Instead, the ancient earthly branch timekeeping form is adopted. The first Chenlong day in the October of the lunar calendar is set as the beginning of the new year, which is equivalent to the first day of the Chinese New Year of the Han nationality , Maotu Day is the end of the old year. According to the traditional customs of this nation, pigs, chickens and ducks must be killed during the festival, and glutinous rice cakes must be pounded to make glutinous rice dumplings. To celebrate the old year, welcome the new year, and worship the ancestors.

On New Year's Day, the whole village wants to kill a pig together. This pig is called "shengbang", which means "shared together." This "shenghong" pig, no matter how big or small, must be evenly distributed according to the entire village. Moreover, the liver, intestines, belly, heart, lungs, etc. of the pigs, even if they can only be divided into a small amount, must be divided into every family. The purpose is to use the meat of the same pig for all households in the village to sacrifice their ancestors. Sacrificial activities are one of the important contents of the Hani "Zalet". Before the festival, each family began to carry out various sacrificial activities in accordance with their own family traditions. First of all, you must kill chickens outside the gate or in the patio. The purpose is to sacrifice to those family members or villagers who died in other places. They think they will go home during the New Year, but their wronged souls cannot enter the house, so they must Honor them outside the door. "Zalet" is also the day when the Hani family reunite. Generally, the newly married sisters are invited to come back and live for a few days regardless of whether they have children.

"Yekuzha" Festival

"Yekuzha" is a traditional festival of Hani people in Xishuangbanna. Every year, it starts on the day of the ox in the sixth month of the lunar calendar (the auspicious day of the Hani people), and the festival lasts for three to five days. Legend has it that a long time ago, insects occurred in the fields of the Hani people. People killed chickens and prayed for God, slaughtered pigs and sacrificed dragons to no avail. An old man named Abeimingye went to the field to catch three insects, wrapped them with green leaves, and clamped them on the wooden cows, and inserted them on the ground, at the intersection and at the entrance of the village respectively, for people to spit and punish the insects. A few days later, the pests in the field were gone, and new seedlings grew from the millet. People have a good harvest. In the future, whenever pests occurred in the fields, people followed Abemingye's method to do it.

Later, Abeimingye died, and his son killed chickens to sacrifice to his father every year after loading the seedlings. After this matter spread, it has become a traditional festival for the Hani people for a long time. Since Hani people are both father and son, the first word of the son's name is taken from the last word of the father's name. This festival was first raised by Abemingye’s son to commemorate his father, so it was called "Yekuza". At the beginning of "Yekuzha", the middle-aged man killed pigs and cattle; the young man went up the mountain to cut trees, cut the cane, and transported it back to the village to make a swing; the women cooked at home, made vegetables, and pounded glutinous rice cakes. Swinging is a major event of the festival. When playing on the swing, the onlookers watched and sang, and from time to time they said, "Woo, woo!" 'The cheers added to the excitement.现场非常热闹。 During the festival, horse races, spinning tops, bamboo dances, ball games, tug-of-war, singing competitions, etc. are also held, making traditional festival activities richer and more charming.

哈尼族传统节日

"Dragon Festival"

The Day of Sacrifice Dragon is a traditional festival of the Hani people living in the Ailao Mountain area on the south bank of the Honghe River in Yunnan. The festival is celebrated on the second day of the lunar calendar, and a ceremony to worship the dragon and travel to the village is held in units of villages. At the forefront of the parade is a colored paper dragon head, followed by a girl dressed up as a young man surrounded by young men and women, followed by the Hani crowd. They beat gongs, cowhide drums, Bau, and ukulele to travel around the village.

There is a legend in the origin of the festival: a long time ago, when the Hani migrated from afar to settle in Ailao Mountain, a mountain demon named Shede Awo lived here, and it was practiced by a group of tigers, leopards, and jackals. Accompanied by Chengkai monsters. Mountain monsters often rush to Hani village with a group of monsters disguised as adults, destroying crops and houses, killing people and animals, and often snatching children for food, making the village restless. After a long period of time, the children of Hani people were harmed by the mountain demons, and there were no more children left. At this time, people entrusted Mi Gu, who had a relationship with the mountain demon, to intercede with Shede Awo, begging him not to come to grab the child again. The Mountain Demon asks to send him a girl as his wife on February 1st every year.

The Hani were forced to agree to the conditions and were forced to agree to the conditions. Year after year, the Hani lost many innocent and lively girls. There is a widow named Bi Niang. She has three children. The eldest son, Nugo, is both boys, and the third child, Meishuang, is a girl who is only 16 years old. This year, it was her family's turn to send the girl off, and the whole family was very sad. Mom and two elder brothers disagreed with her sister to send her to death. With the time limit approaching, several children of Mother Tablet asked to kill the mountain demon to avenge the girls. After carefully discussing with the villagers, Yuri Ze and Nuga dressed up as two beautiful girls on Yangri Day. The villagers carried wine, vegetables and other tributes to the cave of the mountain demon.

The mountain demon looked very happy when they saw that people were still fulfilling their promises on time this year and sent an extra girl, so they immediately sent the people back to the village. Then, the "two girls" pretended to be like the funny mountain demon, set a banquet to persuade him to drink and have fun, deliberately getting him drunk. When the mountain demon became drunk, they used clever tricks to discover the deadly secret of the mountain demon in time. In the evening, the two girls took advantage of the drunk of the mountain demon to be asleep, and quickly plucked the white hair from its heart. The mountain demon screamed and sat up suddenly, but because its bones and muscles were soft, the "girl" immediately drew out her portable knife, killed the mountain demon, and got rid of the bane of the Hani.

At this time, the folks who were hiding outside the entrance of the cave also joined in and out, and wiped out the other little monsters in one fell swoop. On the morning of the second day of the second day (Dragon Day), the villagers heard the good news worker beating the cowhide drum, playing the Bau, playing the ukulele, singing the Hani song and walking out of the village, enthusiastically welcoming Rize and Nuga. The hero returns with victory. In the future, in order to celebrate the great victory of the two heroes for the people's destruction forever, the Hani people will choose two young men to dress up as girls on the day of Dragon Day. Surrounded by the villagers, they will beat the gongs and drums and visit the village. It evolved into a festival and has been spread to this day.

哈尼族传统节日

"Gatangpa"

The Hani language is "renewal of all things" or "memorial to ancestor Tompa". "Gatangpa Festival" is a festival to commemorate ancestors. During the festival, Hani people wear festive costumes, kill pigs and chickens, pound glutinous rice cakes, sacrifice to their ancestors, entertain relatives and friends, and celebrate the New Year together. Young men and women go up the mountain in groups to pick wild flowers and wild fruits. Men, regardless of age, have to make a top, and everyone goes to the open field to start a top playing competition. Regardless of men, women, young and old, enjoy entertaining, and celebrate the new year with prosperous prosperity. The Hani people from Gasa Town, Jinghong City, Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture, Guanggang Village, Menghun Town, Menghai County, and Mengrun Township, Mengla County, sang and danced.

Compatriots of ethnic groups such as the Dai people from nearby villages also came to cheer up, with traditional tug-of-war, crossbow shooting, spinning tops, embroidery competitions and colorful cultural programs to celebrate the "Gatangpa Festival." During the "Gatangpa Festival", the Hani people in Mengpeng Town, Mengla County, dressed in festive costumes, sang toast songs and jumped up bangs. This peaceful village in the past is immersed in the festive atmosphere. Performance teams from various villages and farms performed wonderful cultural performances at the celebration party, wishing life more and more beautiful in the future.

老王
本文标签:哈尼族,布谷鸟,中国少数民族节日

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